Hani Bawardi aims to show that a number of Levantine immigrants to the United States, who considered themselves Syrians in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, were transformed into “Arab Americans” through a process of politicization that was driven by actual events in the Levant in the 1920s and 1930s. The American context enabled this self-politicization, which benefited the first waves of Arab immigrants who came before the 1924 immigration restrictions that were only gradually relaxed in the 1950s and 1960s. Even so, the political organization of the early wave of immigrants was hampered by the circumstances of World War II and the onset of the Cold War, which gradually turned American public opinion toward Zionism and away from the Palestinian cause that was held dear by many Arab Americans. Bawardi's research shows that toward the end of the 1940s, Arab Americans grew frustrated with the American political climate...

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