The Kurds are a significant minority in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria, and their experience in the twentieth century has been mainly one of oppression and persecution at the hands of the state authorities. The Kurds' resistance during the second part of twentieth century, particularly in Turkey and Iraq, has turned a number of Kurdish movements into important political actors in the region. With the establishment of Kurdistan Region as an autonomous entity in Iraq, the re-emergence of pro-Kurdish political parties as a significant political actor in Turkey, and the emergence of the People's Defense Forces (ypg) in Syria in 2011 and the military success it has been enjoying in the ongoing Syrian civil war, have meant that the rising importance of the Kurds in the region has continued into the twenty-first century. In comparison to the Kurds in Turkey and Iraq, the political movements of the Kurds in Syria...

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