The two books under review focus on Islam and state in Syria. When the revolution broke out in Syria in March 2011, the Muslim Brothers were absent from the demonstrations in town and village squares. Yet the uprising very quickly assumed an Islamist dimension. What's more, Syria began to sink into a jihadist war in which volunteers from all over the Arab and Muslim world streamed into the country in order to take part in the holy war against what they considered to be the heretical ʿAlawi regime, and its allies, Shiʿi Iran and Hizballah. These books shed light on the story of the Muslim Brothers in Syria, its failures and missed opportunities. For indeed the movement failed in its efforts to become a leading force in Syrian society, and consequently in its efforts to make Islam a leading force in the state and society. It seems that ultimately it even failed to become a leading factor within Islamic circles in Syria.

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