The Muslim Brotherhood (Jama'at al-khwan al-Muslimin, also known simply as Ikhwan) has proven to be durable and resilient since the twenty-two-year-old Hassan al-Banna founded the original chapter in Egypt in 1928. It started as a modernist Islamic club at the time when the Middle East was developing indigenous movements like the Young Men's Muslim Association in response to similar organizations that had emerged in Britain, continental Europe, and the United States to give young men goals, morals, and a sense of solidarity. Conversely, wealthy elites in the Middle East were often inducted into Freemason brotherhoods, but the working class rarely participated, giving rise to suspicions that Masons were somehow engineering politics and society. As a synthesis of these two types, the Muslim Brotherhood attracted a large number of socially ambitious followers who wanted an anchor for Islamic practice in a rapidly changing sociopolitical environment. Initially, al-Banna's movement...

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