This review essay examines the historical and present configurations of transnational Kemalism, with a focus on Kemalism's transformation into a counterhegemonic transnational dissidence movement during the rule of the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, AKP) in Turkey. Accordingly, Kemalism, as the founding ideology of the Turkish state, has historically been the anchor for Turkish transnational politics. Ethnic Turkish kinship networks, for instance in the Balkans and the emigrant communities worldwide, were connected via Kemalism to the Anatolian mainland, and vice versa. With the AKP's rise to the power in the 2000s, Kemalism lost its primacy and came to be viewed as a subversive ideology which was utilized in resisting, both nationally and transnationally, the officially promoted neo-Ottoman and Islamic representations of belonging and identity in Turkey and its diaspora communities. Here, the author's research among the Kosovar Turkish population adds to a discussion of two works on this subject.

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