Archaeologists often examine the book of Joshua in the light of questions that it raises concerning its context in the material culture. This essay proposes to consider the context of the book in light of the ancient world of texts. Conquest accounts, boundary descriptions, treaties and other forms of texts are common to both the Hebrew book of Joshua and written documents of the West Semitic world. Archives of Alalakh, Ugarit and neighboring Egyptian and Anatolian sources are surveyed for their contribution to the understanding of texts found in Joshua. Specific items of vocabulary and onomastics, as well as larger forms of literature, are consulted with the goal of placing various portions of the book in their literary context as documents whose heritage lies in the West Semitic scribal tradition.