Paul's use of Scripture in his epistle to the Roman Christians raises many questions: Why does he appeal to Scripture so frequently in this letter? How is the distribution of quotations to be understood? Why did Paul appeal to Scripture at all, since most of his readers were Gentiles? How are we to understand Paul's diverse exegetical methods? There are other questions that suggest themselves. This paper attempts to answer all of these questions by carefully considering the recipients' background and experience, the nature of Paul's argument in Romans and in his other extant writings, and Paul's understanding of the gospel, especially as it impinges on Israel.