The majority of these 18 essays were delivered at a 2015 conference of the same name in Tübingen and contribute to the longstanding interest in opponents in early Jewish and Christian movements. Many of the authors are published experts on the specific topics addressed, and their essays provide convenient access to their thinking in these discussions.

After a brief foreword by the editors, the volume falls into three parts—ancient Judaism (3 essays), New Testament (10 essays), and early Christian literature (5 essays)—and concludes with indexes of contributors, ancient sources, and authors. Thirteen contributions are in German and five are in English. Each has a separate bibliography appended. A complete list of the essays follows, with German titles translated into English.

Oda Wischmeyer, “Why Are Opponents in NT Documents Kept Anonymous? Observations on Anonymous Polemic” (which belongs properly in the NT section but fits well as an introduction on a topic...

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