Zephaniah 2:1 calls “the nation not longing” to bundle together in submission to the Lord, and 2:3 urges “the humble of the land/earth” to seek him increasingly. The identity of these vocatives significantly affects the book’s interpretation, but scholars generally offer one of three views on the proper referent(s): (1) Both 2:1 and 3 address Judah collectively as a rebellious nation. (2) 2:1 confronts rebellious Judah collectively, but 2:3 speaks to the enemy foreign nations. (3) 2:1 addresses rebellious Judah collectively, but 2:3 addresses the nation’s faithful remnant. After overviewing these alternatives and arguing that option three best captures the principal referents, this study argues (4) that Judah and its remnant are the primary but not sole addressees of 2:1 and 3, with the literary context suggesting that the prophet intended that other rebellious nations and their remnants see 2:1 and 3 as applying equally to them by extension.

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