Matthew 9:36 and 10:6 clearly echo Ezek 34 with its description of restoration as eschatological shepherding. However, this article argues that Jer 23:1–6 also warrants serious consideration, though it is rarely noticed. Activating this text in the audience’s mind casts the apostles as eschatological shepherds in conjunction with the messiah, resulting in the emphasis of their royal and prophetic functions. After establishing that Jer 23:1–6 satisfies various criteria of an allusion, Jer 23 will be examined to demonstrate that, though הָרֹעִים and ποιμένας are general terms, contextually the terms refer to eschatological rulers and prophets connected to the messiah. Last, the Gospel of Matthew, particularly the mission discourse, will be considered to see how the apostles are cast in these roles.

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