Using an intertextual approach that focuses on the multifaceted transmission of concepts in addition to textual transmission of discrete points of ideology, this article examines how the biblical book of Nahum presents the Assyrian Empire and how it responds to it. While Nahum’s categories nearly mirror those of the relevant Neo-Assyrian sources, the response Nahum formulates to Assyrian imperialism is radically different from the militarily-driven project of world domination whose influence Nahum’s author so keenly felt. The nature of Nahum’s reaction to Assyria also distinguishes it from some other responses to non-Israelite nations in the HB/OT.

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