This article begins by asking whether Paul's second reference to "Israel" in Rom 9:6b refers to the faithful Jewish remnant alone or to the eschatological people of God comprising believing Jews and Gentiles together and suggests that a satisfactory answer can be obtained if this verse is viewed in the larger context of Paul's discourse in which the patriarchs repeatedly play a determinative and predominantly typological role in marking out the boundaries of God's eschatological people. The remainder of the article closely examines Gal 3 and 4:21–31 as well as Rom 4 and 9:7–13 in order to demonstrate that there is an underlying hermeneutical consistency to Paul's typological use of the patriarchs and that this consistency is supportive of the view that "Israel" in Rom 9:6b refers to spiritual Israel—that is, the church.

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