"The fruit of the Spirit" in Gal 5:22 and its manifestations appear to be a general allusion to Isaiah's promise that the Spirit would bring about abundant fertility in the coming new age. Uppermost in mind are Isaiah's repeated prophecies (especially chap. 32 and, above all, 57) that in the new creation the Spirit would be the bearer of plentiful fruitfulness, which Isaiah often interprets to be godly attributes such as righteousness, patience, peace, joy, holiness, and trust in the Lord, traits either identical or quite similar to those in Gal 5:22–23. Paul's rhetorical effect and thematic emphasis are increased by the readers' being able to situate themselves as those who are part of the dawning eschatological promises made to Israel, and hence they are true Israelites who play a significant role in this cosmic redemptive-historical drama. If they are really part of this drama, then they will pay heed to Paul's exhortations.

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