The author proposes an integrated definition and theory of self-esteem that merges models from developmental, social, and clinical psychology. He identifies optimal, shared sources of self-esteem that he combines into a multidimensional model called the Intrapersonal Sources of Self-Esteem Theory. Based on this multidimensional theory, he designed a qualitative and quantitative measuring instrument, the Self-Esteem Sentence Completion Instrument, to assess people's sources of self-esteem. He discusses research that applies this instrument, which suggests promising results in understanding self-esteem. Finally, he suggests a clinical application of the theory within a cognitive-behavioral therapy paradigm.

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