This article investigates the gender differential effects of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Tanzania, using data from the 2014 Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS). The multinomial logit model results for employment mobility show that TVET training significantly improves males’ as well as females’ chances of entering into formal employment, while reducing their probability of working in the informal and agriculture sectors or being unemployed. The results further show that although TVET training increases males’ as well as females’ earnings significantly, the returns to TVET training are substantially higher and are more statistically significant for females than for males. The decomposed gender earnings gap using the Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder (1973) decomposition technique revealed that there is a significant gender earning gap in Tanzania; males tend to earn significantly higher incomes than females. The result implies that investing in girls’ education and skills training will play a significant role toward progress in gender equality, poverty eradication, and inclusive economic growth.