This essay, originally delivered as a speech in Italy, was first published in Politiques de Caïn: En Dialogue avec René Girard (Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 2004), 19–34. © Desclée de Brouwer 2004. I am indebted to Michael Hardin for bringing it to my attention.

The French title is “Les appartenances.” If you look up “appartenance” in a French-English dictionary, you will likely find something like “membership” or “adherence.” However, Girard essentially uses the word as the nominal form of the verb “appartenir,” to belong. Since “belongings” in English has a different meaning (“possessions”), I have opted in most places to translate “les appartenances” as “relationships of belonging.”

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