Abstract

Eco-toxicology represents an important integrative tool of environmental risk assessment. Amphipods is a taxon much recommended for bioassay, but species used are generally from the Atlantic Ocean or the North Sea. None of the Mediterranean species has ever been examined.

In an eco-toxicological evaluation of harbour sediment, Corophium orientale, an endemic Mediterranean species, was investigated for suitability to determine sediment quality. Physical-chemical analyses and amphipod bioassays on several contaminated Italian harbour samples were carried out. Two amphipod populations with different sensitivities were used. Microtox®, a sensitive and reproducible assay procedure, was used in parallel with C. orientale assay in order to ascertain an agreement and/or disagreement between responses. The results of the two bioassay procedures supported the hypothesis that C. orientale, as part of a battery of bioassays, is sensitive to hydro-soluble pollutants contaminating the water column due to dredging activities.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Ankley, G.T., Hoke, R.A., Giesy, J.P. and Winger, P.V.
1989
.
Evaluation of the toxicity marine sediments and dredge spoils with the Microtox® bioassay
.
Chemosphere
,
18
(
9/10
):
2069
2075
.
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)
.
1993
. “
Standard guide for conducting 10-day static sediment toxicity test with marine and estuarine amphipods. Method E1367-92
”. In
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Water and Environmental Technology
Vol.
11.04
,
1138
1163
.
Philadelphia, PA
In:
Azur Environmental
.
1994
.
Microtox® M500 Manual, a toxicity testing handbook (version 3)
Carlsbad CA, , USA
Benton, M.J., Malott, M.L., Knight, S.S., Coopers, C.M. and Benson, W.H.
1995
.
Influence of sediment composition on apparent toxicity in a solid-phase test using bioluminescent bacteria
.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
,
14
(
3
):
411
414
.
Bigongiari, N., Giuliani, S., Pellegrini, D. and Meschini, P.
1998
.
Studio preliminare per l'utilizzo dell'anfipode mediterraneo Corophium orientale nei saggi biologici su sedimenti marini (in Italian)
.
Acqua & Aria
,
1
:
63
66
.
Bulich, A.A., Greene, M.W. and Underwood, S.R.
Measurement of soil and sediment toxicity to bioluminescent bacteria when in direct contact for a fixed time period
.
Water Environment Federation 65th Annual Conference and Exposition
.
September 20–24 1992
.
New Orleans LA, , USA
Burgess, R.M. and Scott, K.J.
1992
. “
The significance of in-place contaminated marine sediments on the water column: processes and effects
”. In
Sediment Toxicity Assessment
, Edited by: Burton, G.A. Jr.
129
165
.
New York
:
Lewis Publishers
.
In:
Byers, S.C., Mills, E.L. and Stewart, P.L.
1987
.
A comparison of methods of determining organic carbon in marine sediments, with suggestions for a standard method
.
Hydrobiologia
,
58
:
43
47
.
Carr, R.S., Chapman, D.C., Howard, C.L. and Biedenbach, J.M.
1996
.
Sediment quality triad assessment survey of the Galveston Bay, Texas system
.
Ecotoxicology
,
5
:
341
364
.
Chapman, P.M.
1990
.
The sediment quality triad approach to determining pollution-induced degradation
.
Sci. Tox. Environ.
,
97
(
8
):
815
825
.
Ciarelli, S.
1994
.
Guideline for conducting 10-day static sediment toxicity tests using marine or estuarine amphipods
,
Report from the Tidal Water Division, Middelburg, The Netherlands
Report RIKZ-94.031
Diviacco, G. and Bianchi, C.N.
1987
.
Faunal interrelationship between lagoonal and marine amphipod crustacean communities of the Po river delta (Northern Adriatic)
.
Anales de biologia
,
12
:
67
77
.
(Biologia Ambiental, 3)
Giani, M., Gabellini, M., Pellegrini, D., Costantini, S., Beccaloni, E. and Giordano, R.
1994
.
Concentration and partitioning of Cr, Hg and Pb in sediments of dredge and disposal sites of the northern Adriatic sea
.
Sci. Tot. Environ.
,
158
:
97
112
.
Griest, W.H. and Caton, S.E.
1983
. “
Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for quantitative analysis
”. In
Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
, Edited by: Bjorseth, A.
95
148
.
New York
:
Marcel Dekker
.
In:
Hill, I.R., Matthiessen, P. and Heimbach, F., eds.
Sediment Toxicity Tests and Bioassays for Freshwater and Marine Environments
.
Workshop on sediment toxicity assessment, Renesse, The Netherlands
.
November 8–10 1993
.
SETAC-Europe
.
Kemp, P.F. and Swarrtz, R.C.
1988
.
Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod
.
Mar. Environ. Res.
,
26
:
135
153
.
Kohn, N.P., Word, J.Q. and Niyogi, D.K.
1994
.
Acute toxicity of ammonia to four species of marine amphipod
.
Mar. Environ. Res.
,
38
:
1
15
.
Landrum, P.F., Nihart, S.R., Eadie, B.J. and Herche, L.R.
1987
.
Reduction in bioavailability of organic contaminants to the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi by dissolved organic matter of sediment interstitial waters
.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
,
6
:
11
20
.
Long, E.R. and Chapman, P.M.
1985
.
A sediment quality triad: measures of sediment contamination, toxicity and infaunal community composition in Puget Sound
.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
,
16
(
10
):
405
415
.
Lourens, J.M., Vonck, A.P.M.A., Van de Guchte, C., Hartnack, J. and Stronkhorst, J.
1995
.
Sediment toxicity testing of lightly contaminated dredged material in The Netherlands
.
J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health
,
4
:
271
275
.
Mearns, A.J., Swartz, R.C., Cummins, J.M., Dinnel, P.A., Plesha, P. and Chapman, P.M.
1986
.
Inter-laboratory comparison of a sediment toxicity test using the marine amphipod, Repoxynius abronius
.
Mar. Environ. Res.
,
19
:
13
37
.
Newman, M.C.
1995
.
Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology (Advances in Trace Substances Research), Lewis Publisher
,
New York
:
CRC Press
.
PARCOM (Paris Commission)
.
1995
.
Protocols on methods for the testing of chemicals used in the offshore industry
Oslo and Paris commission
Peltier, W.H. and Weber, C.I.
1985
.
Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents to freshwater and marine organisms, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-600/4-85/013)
21
24
.
Washington, DC
Pinto, B., Pellegrini, D., Gabellini, M. and Ausili, A.
1995
.
Harbour and coastal sediment chemistry and toxicity: a preliminary assessment in drediging activities
.
J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health
,
4
:
249
255
.
Reish, D.J. and Lemay, J.A.
1988
. “
Bioassay manual for dredged materials
”. In
US Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, Los Angeles, CA
Technical Report DACW-09-83R-005
Ringwood, A.H., De Lorenzo, M.E., Ross, P.E. and Holland, A.F.
1997
.
Interpretation of Microtox® solid-phase toxicity tests: the effects of sediment composition
.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
,
16
(
6
):
1135
1140
.
Ross, P. and Munawar, M.
1994
.
Development of regulations for managing contaminated sediments in Europe and North America
.
J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health
,
3
:
221
225
.
Ruffo, S., ed.
1982
. “
The Amphipoda of the Mediterranean
”. In
Memoires de l'institut oceanografique, A.A.W., Monaco, n°13
364
364
.
Schellenberg, A.
1928
.
XXXV Report on the Amphipoda. Zoological Results. Cambridge expedition to the Suez Canal
.
Transaction of the Zoological Society of London
,
22
:
633
692
.
Schlekat, C.E., McGee, B.L. and Reinharz, E.
1992
.
Testing sediment toxicity in Chesapeake Bay with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus: an evaluation
.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
,
11
:
225
236
.
Swartz, R.C., Ditsworth, G.R., Schults, D.W. and Lamberson, J.O.
1985
.
Sediment toxicity to a marine infaunal amphipod: cadmium and its interaction with sewage sludge
.
Mar. Environ. Res.
,
18
:
133
153
.
USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency)
.
1986
.
Test methods for evaluating solid waste (SW-846), , Vol. 1B
,
Washington, DC
:
USEPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
.
USEPA/USACE (United States Environmental Proctetion Agency, United States Army Corps of Engineers)
.
1994
.
Evaluation of dredged material proposed for discharge in waters of the U.S. Testing manual (Draft). EPA-823-B-94-002
Washington, DC
Van den Hurk, P. and Smit, T.
1991
.
Protocol for sediment bioassays with the estuarine and marine amphipoda (in Dutch)
Bureau Waardenburg bv, Culemborg