Coastal wetlands play a significant role in maintaining the balance and health of the ecosystem, such as regulating the climate and maintaining biodiversity. As well, coastal wetlands also characterize valuable services and resources for society including cleaning the environment and providing abundant resources. Both inappropriate exploitation of and constant human activity influences on coastal wetlands have caused numerous ecological problems. We summarize the four vital ecological functions of the coastal wetland in Xiamen, that is, 1. mitigation of climate change, 2. protection of water and soil, 3. purification of water, 4. habitat for wild animals, and 5. biological production. Subsequently we investigate and study the changes of the coastal wetland in Xiamen and the anthropic pressures from: 1. minimization of the shallow sea area, 2. in-shore siltation, 3. sediment changes with-in the wetland, and 4. shrinkage of the mangrove area. The paper aims to provide scientific evidence of the important role of wetlands in the coastal ecosystem and make clear the relationship between human activities and the health of these wetland areas.

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