India's North Eastern Region comprises eight land-locked states and has a total population approaching 46 million, made up of approximately 220 ethnic communities. A high demand for fish prevails in the region as 90–100% of the population prefers fish in their daily diet. The region faces climate change-related issues at various levels and with a range of impacts on the inland fisheries sector. The period 1951 to 2010 saw a significant increase in annual mean temperature in several states of the region (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, Mizoram, and Tripura). The highest increase in annual mean temperature was recorded in Sikkim (+0.05 °C yr-1) followed by Manipur (+0.03 °C yr-1). Significant changes in annual rainfall pattern were also recorded during the same time period in the region: four of the eight states (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Nagaland) experienced a decreasing trend, and the remaining four (Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, and Mizoram) an increasing trend. The highest increase in annual rainfall was recorded in Meghalaya (+14.68 mm yr-1) during this period. The change in seasonal trend of mean temperature and the erratic rainfall pattern in the region have had profound impacts on the traditional fisheries of the region. This study outlines these impacts and suggests potential adaptation actions that may be implemented to cope with climate change.

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