Ornamental fish culture and aquarium keeping have become a booming sector worldwide. It has been observed that a number of stakeholders are involved in introducing exotic ornamentals in India as well, as the takers are interested on variants and new species. Most of the exotic ornamental fishes are also being domesticated in India, since the demand is readily fulfilled through adequate supply to the hobbyists. This sector provides livelihood option to many people and helps to earn millions of dollars to our country every year, however, the invasion of exotic ornamentals in our natural water bodies needs to be assessed, monitored and controlled with due attention as it is a staid menace to our biodiversity. Around 400 species / variants of exotic freshwater ornamentals and around 100 exotic marine ornamental species including invertebrates are found to have introduced in the trade. It is significant to note that an apparent violation in the trade is taking place by concealing the Government of India approval, which is given only for 92 species / variants of fishes for import. Further, as some of the freshwater ornamental fishes currently available in the aquarium trade have invaded through natural water bodies, their impacts need to be studied in detail. To deal with the situation, the proper precautionary approach should be implemented by adopting measures after having proper quarantine, meticulous risk analysis and strategic prevention methods as well. Combined efforts of industry stakeholders with different government agencies, academic and research institutions is required and a suitable protocol has to be formulated for permissible import, sustainable production, supply and management.

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