The study provides an assessment of sand dredging activities from the bottom of the sea during 2016 in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Total Suspended Solids were analyzed from 2010 until 2016 in the northern and eastern locations according to the Manual of oceanographic observations and pollutant analyses methods. Fifty five percent of sand dredging companies complied with some legislation such as air quality and occupational health. Almost all lacked any compliancy evidence supporting environmental protection. Only 9% of these sand companies use siltation processes to the dredged materials. Siltation is an important step to avoid dispersion of sand into the marine environment. Ambient Total Suspended Solids was around 6.1 mgl−1 ± Standard Error and the study recommends 10 mgl−1 level as an accepted concentration in samples taken from 500 meters away from the dredgers and 100 mgl−1 in samples taken from the middle of the generated silt plumes. The effect of climatic temperatures, dust storms and rain levels on seawater Total Suspended Solids concentration has been briefly discussed. The study concludes no significance seasonal or spatial variation on the ambient Total Suspended Solids concentration. It recommends coupling remote sensing with the conventional data collection and integration of modelling efforts for effective cost benefit monitoring and management of the coastal waters.

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