The hazards of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural ecosystems are increasingly drawing public attention. These chemical agents affect aquatic life and its proliferation and can eventually cause reduced population density and species biodiversity. At present, EDCs are being considered as possible reasons for the functional degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Field and laboratory studies suggest that EDCs can disrupt the reproductive and developmental health of various species. Molecular evidence shows that EDCs exhibit genotoxicity and can destroy genetic diversity and structure. Evolutionary toxicology further demonstrates that EDCs can affect the pattern of natural selection and eventually lead to evolutionary potential (or adaptability) loss. Historical statistics and ecological risk estimation provided additional robust data to prove that EDCs contribute to population density and biomass decline. Therefore, EDCs may be a latent cause of aquatic species loss or extinction. In the present article, the extinction risk attributable to EDCs are briefly reviewed and discussed based on the aforementioned factors. The present study aims to assess the species vulnerability to extinction under EDCs exposure and provide a scientific basis for making policy decisions on wildlife resource conservation.

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