The relationships between the wind fields of the East Asia winter monsoon (EAWM), the Siberian High (SH), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) were investigated using reanalysis products. The winter anomalies of the wind fields were systematically examined from the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk (SoO), the Sea of Japan (SOJ), the East China Sea (ECS), and all the way to the South China Sea (SCS). The sea-level pressure (SLP) difference between the SH and the Aleutian Low (AL) determines the intensity of the EAWM.Wind field anomalies are controlled directly by the SH and indirectly by the AO that has significant impacts on the SH and AL. It is found that +SH enhances the EAWM, while +AO reduces the intensity of the EAWM by reducing the SLP difference (gradient) between the SH and AL; vice versa for the –SH and –AO, respectively. The surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies caused by the +SH result in a significant cooling in the downstream regions and a warming in the upstream regions; vice versa for the negative phase of the SH. The +AO produces a large warming in northern Eurasian and a cooling in the Bering Sea. Furthermore, using a Coupled Ice-Ocean Model (CIOM), it is found that the EAWM can produce a downwelling and dense water formation along the Siberian coast in the western Bering Sea, and also a significant surface-to-bottom convection over the Bering shelf, forming the winter shelf water, which can survive the summer as the so-called cold pool. The cold pool in the Bering Sea has significant impacts on marine ecosystems and habitat including fisheries, which has much implication to other marginal seas of East Asia.

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